10 Differences between Dicot Root and Monocot Root

All vascular plants are divided into monocots and dicots. The number of cotyledons serves as the primary basis for this classification. According to botany, cotyledons are a crucial component of the embryo, or part of a seed. The Greek word for an embryonic leaf is where the word “cotyledons” comes from. There are two distinct cotyledon types: monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

Monocot and Dicot Roots
Image Source: Byjus.

Definition of Dicot Root

Dicot plants frequently have the root system known as a dicot root. The xylem and phloem tissues in the root typically form a structure resembling a tap root.

Phloem tissues usually surround the xylem tissue in the core of the root. In addition, the xylem is angular in shape.

Dicot roots frequently exhibit secondary thickening, and the vascular cambium, a parenchyma tissue, serves as a connective tissue between them.

Dicot plants like peas, mangos, oranges, and peanuts among many others frequently have structures resembling tap roots.

Definition of Monocot Root

Monocot plants frequently have a fibrous root-like structure, which is seen in monocot roots. The fibrous root-like structure has a tendency to lie shallowly on the ground, which makes it simpler to uproot the plant.

The orientation of xylem and phloem tissue is ring-shaped. The oval-shaped xylem vessels are joined by sclerenchyma tissues.

Because the monocot root lacks a cambium, secondary growth is not visible. Maize, palm, and bananas are a few examples of common plants with monocot roots.

Functions of Monocot and Dicot Root

Both monocot and dicot plants rely on their roots to support the plant, which is their primary role. Additionally, roots serve a number of additional more or less comparable roles in both types of plants. Some of the roles played by monocot and dicot roots include the following;

  • The root system’s primary job is to anchor the plant to the ground or other surface in order to give support.
  • Water and minerals dissolved in the soil must be absorbed by roots. The water and minerals are subsequently transported to other areas of the plant by the vascular system in the root.
  • Additionally, the root system stores numerous food particles in a variety of tissues, including conjunctive tissue, pith, and cortex. Plants with modified roots, like radish and carrots, may store a lot of food.
  • In order to get oxygen, plants that grow in marshy places have roots that extend above the soil line. Pneumatophores are the name given to these roots, which include microscopic pores called pneumathodes that are engaged in gas exchange.
  • Many dicot roots share a symbiotic connection with fungus and other microbes that are crucial to nitrogen fixation.
  • Some plants’ multiplication and plant dispersal processes involve their roots.

Key Difference Between Dicot And Monocot Root

Dicot RootMonocot Root
Pericycle
Gives rise to cork cambium, parts of the vascular cambium, and lateral rootsGives rise to lateral roots only
Vascular Tissues
Has a limited number of Xylem and PhloemHas a higher number of Xylem and Phloem
Shape of Xylem
Angular or PolygonalRound or Oval
Number of Xylem and Phloem
2 to 88 to many
Pith
Absent or very small and undevelopedLarger and well developed
Conjunctive tissue
ParenchymatousSclerenchymatous
Secondary growth
Secondary growth occursSecondary growth does not occur
Cambium
Present and formed by the  Conjunctive parenchymaAbsent
Xylem
Usually tetrarchPolyarch
Cortex
Comparatively NarrowVery wide
Covering
Older roots are covered by a CorkOlder roots are covered by an Exodermis
Examples
Pea, beans, peanuts, etc.Maize, banana, palm, etc.

FAQs

What is the dicot root?

Dicot roots have a taproot structure, which means they penetrate deeply into the earth as a single, thick root with lateral branches. The major vascular structures of dicot roots are encircled by the ground tissue, which is mostly made up of parenchyma cells.

What is monocot root?

Monocot Root. The epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, and pith make up the monocot root. A monocot root has a pith in the stele, unlike dicot roots. Additionally, it has vascular bundles made of both xylem and phloem.

What are three differences between a monocot and a dicot?

The four different structural characteristics of leaves, stems, roots, and flowers set monocots apart from dicots. However, the distinctions begin with the seed, which is where the plant’s life cycle begins. The plant’s embryo is located inside the seed. Dicots have two cotyledons, whereas monocots only have one.

Are pine trees dicots or monocots?

Pines are conifers and neither dicots nor monocots. The only plants that are deemed to belong to both classifications are those that produce flowers.

Conclusion

The number of roots that each species of plant possesses is the main difference between monocot roots and dicot roots. Dicots have multiple, smaller roots distributed uniformly throughout their plant, whereas monocots normally have one dominating root in the middle of the plant.

Additionally, monocots normally have a single vascular bundle, but dicots typically have many vascular bundles (the primary bundle of xylem tissue in a plant). This structural variation results from variations in how the cambium, a layer of cells that are actively growing in these plants, grows. Dicots feature secondary growth, in which the cambium divides the stem into numerous tiny tubes, whereas monocots nearly always lack secondary growth and only thicken the single dominating root.

Finally, the veins on the leaves of dicots tend to be more randomly arranged than those on monocots, which often have parallel veins. This variation is brought on by variations in the cambium’s growth patterns. Dicots feature secondary growth, in which the cambium divides the stem into numerous tiny tubes, whereas monocots nearly always lack secondary growth and only thicken the single dominating root.