7 Common Eye Diseases in Nigeria and Treatment Options

Common Eye Diseases in Nigeria and Their Treatment

The eye is one of the most complex parts of the human body, and being able to see is one of the most important things we have. Some problems with the eyes are minor and go away on their own or are simple to treat.
A large number of people will have problems with their eyes at some point in their lives. Because it’s so important to take care of your eyes, here are the top 7 common eye diseases in Nigeria.

Common Eye Diseases in Nigeria and Their Treatment

Table of contents

Common Eye Diseases in Nigeria


Cataracts are a common eye problem. More than half of all Nigerians over the age of 65 usually have them. They usually have cataracts in one or both eyes that make it hard for them to see. It happens when clumps form in the eye and stop the lens from sending information to the retina. Most of the time, cataracts show up as a dense, cloudy area on the lens of the eye. When this happens, light just can’t get to the retina, so the person can’t see clearly what’s in front of them.

The common types of cataract include:

  • Congenital cataracts
  • Trauma-induced cataracts
  • Nuclear cataracts
  • Cortical cataracts
  • Posterior subcapsular cataracts

Cataracts treatment options

Cataracts, fortunately, are a common eye issue that may be treated surgically. The extent of your eyesight loss and how it impacts your quality of life and ability to function will determine if surgery is required or not.


Glaucoma happens when the optic nerve in the eye gets damaged. This usually happens when fluid builds up and the pressure inside the eye gets higher. This stops the images from being sent to the brain by the optic nerve. If the pressure builds up for a long time without treatment, it could make it impossible to see again. Glaucoma gets worse quickly and can make people blind in just a few years.

Glaucoma’s most noticeable signs are tunnel vision, loss of peripheral vision, blurry eyes, halos around the eyes, and red eyes.

Glaucoma treatment options

Once diagnosed, glaucoma can be treated with surgery, lasers, or eye drops.


Presbyopia is a common age-related visual problem that makes it difficult to see or concentrate on items that are up close. It occurs most often in people over the age of 40. The condition known as presbyopia is not an illness but rather a normal aspect of the aging process.

Presbyopia treatment options

Putting on corrective lenses, going through refractive surgery, or receiving lens implants are all potential treatments options.


A pterygium is a growth that starts on the conjunctiva of the eye and grows onto the cornea. It looks like a triangle or wedge.

The clear, thin membrane that covers the white of the eye is called the conjunctiva. The clear covering on the front of the eye is called the cornea.

Pterygia are not bad, but they can irritate the eyes and make it hard to see.

Pterygium treatment options

People with pterygiums may be able to treat their symptoms at home with the following:

  • Using over-the-counter artificial tears to keep the eyes moist and ease minor pain. 
  • Using eye ointment when artificial tears aren’t enough.
  • If contact lenses are causing eye pain or irritation, you should switch to glasses.

In certain situations, a pterygium can make it hard to see or cause symptoms that can’t be treated with over-the-counter or prescription medicines.

In this case, a doctor may suggest that the pterygium be removed through surgery.

Allergic conjunctivitis

Most of the time, allergic conjunctivitis happens when an allergen comes into contact with a person’s eyes. An allergen is a substance that causes the body’s immune system to overreact.

Most of the time, the condition does not hurt and does not make the eyes sensitive to light. It does not have any effect on one’s eyesight.

In most cases, eye drops alleviate the symptoms.

Allergic conjunctivitis treatment options

In order to alleviate the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, eye drops are often administered by doctors.

When to See Your Doctor

It’s possible that the symptoms of certain eye conditions won’t become more severe until much later on in the condition. Anyone who notices signs of an eye condition or illness should make an appointment with a general practitioner or an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

Age increases the likelihood of developing common eye issues. Eye exams should be routinely scheduled for anyone over the age of 60 so that any potential problems may be detected as early as feasible.


Eye problems are a general term that may refer to a variety of conditions that impact the eyes and eyesight. Some issues might be the result of eye injury or another underlying ailment, whilst others are just a normal effect of becoming older.

Anyone who has concerns about their eyesight should consult with a general practitioner or an ophthalmologist. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular eye exams are both important steps you can take to reduce your risk of developing eye issues.


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