It can be difficult to determine autism spectrum disorder ( ASD) as there is no standardized test to diagnose this condition. Although online tests can help identify characteristics of ASD, they are not tools for diagnosis. With assessments, only an autism specialist can diagnose ASD, although online assessments can aid.
To decide if they or their kids have the disorder, some individuals may use an online test. They do not, however, necessarily have an effective diagnosis.
In this post, we discuss in-depth autism research and take a closer look at the precision of online testing.
What is autism?
ASD is a neurological disorder that can cause differences in how an individual socializes, behaves, and interacts. People with autism, which can make diagnosis difficult, can be different from each other.
In 2016, the prevalence of ASD in U.S. children was around 1 in 54, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC).
ASD is listed as an umbrella term with distinct levels in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) that indicates the support a person may need.
While experts used to think that ASD was more prevalent in men than women, some research suggests that in women, the condition may be underdiagnosed.
For ASD, there is no cure or recognized cause, although there is some agreement that genes play a role. Many individuals with autism, however, value neurodiversity and do not think there is a need for a cure.
From one person to another, the autism spectrum can appear quite differently. People with autism, however, may typically experience communication difficulties, social interaction, minimal or repetitive activities, and sensory processing.
While some of these symptoms in individuals may suggest ASD, they may also refer to other disorders or diagnoses.
How do doctors test for autism?
Typically, an autism diagnosis occurs in early childhood. Nevertheless, as symptoms differ widely, the condition can be difficult to diagnose. Some people may not receive a diagnosis until they are adults.
There is no official test to diagnose ASD at present. In individuals, however, the following experts may be able to validate this condition:
- developmental pediatrician
Below are some examples of the tests for autism:
As they grow, doctors screen kids for developmental progress. Screening involves frequent visits to a pediatrician.
If a parent or caregiver has concerns about the development of a child, their pediatrician may refer them to a specialist, who may perform the following assessments:
- hearing tests
- Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
If a child’s scores show a high risk for autism, the M-CHAT identifies the need for additional testing. It is not a diagnostic tool, but a screening method used by specialists to determine who needs a more comprehensive ASD evaluation.
No single test can diagnose ASD definitively. Other screening tools may include:
- Ages and Stages Questionnaires
- Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales
- Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status
- Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II
- Screening Tool for Autism in Toddlers and Young Children
- Social Communication Questionnaire
If they think a physical condition, such as lead poisoning or a genetic disorder, is causing similar symptoms to ASD, healthcare providers can also order extra tests.
Usually, behavioral evaluation is the next move if a child scores significantly on the M-CHAT or a separate screening tool. Tests during this process can include assessments from:
- child psychologists
- language and speech pathologists
- developmental pediatricians
- occupational therapists
Specialists use a combination of exams and screening tools to make a diagnosis.
An evaluation may involve:
- observing play and parent-child interaction
- taking a detailed history
- physical exams
- developmental skill assessment to determine if there is any language, motor, social, or cognitive impairment
- hearing tests
- language evaluation
Diagnostic tools at this stage may include:
- Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised
- Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule
- Autism Spectrum Rating Scale
- Childhood Autism Rating Scale
- Gilliam Autism Rating Scale – Second Edition
- Social Responsiveness Scale
The DSM-5 also contains ASD diagnosis criteria.
ASD can not be definitively diagnosed by genetic testing. Certain biomarkers that may suggest a condition may be checked, but this method is typically not a useful tool.
Are online autism tests accurate?
Online assessments are not methods for diagnosis. They can, however, help a person decide whether they should talk about ASD to a doctor or specialist.
Only screening instruments are evaluations from reputable, official organizations. They can not provide an official ASD diagnosis for a person.
M-CHAT, for instance, is a commonly used online screening method. Parents and caregivers may be encouraged to determine whether their child may have ASD, although it can not provide a definitive diagnosis.
In some cases, however, online tests can assist specialists with the diagnosis of ASD, but only as part of a more thorough evaluation process.
How to get a diagnosis
Parents and caregivers will determine whether to seek more specialist support through online screening tools.
If a person wants to confirm that he or she has an ASD diagnosis, they should talk to a doctor. If they have questions about their child having ASD, parents should speak to their pediatrician.
Supplementary screening tests can be given by a doctor. They may refer individuals to other specialists, depending on the findings.
Support and treatment
Autism may not have a cure, but many people with the condition will live independent lives.
It is possible to provide educational and behavioral strategies when a child receives a diagnosis. These can help children with their social and language skills. Examples of approaches to treatment include:
- Applied behavior analysis: Uses behavioral reinforcement strategies to encourage certain behaviors. The different techniques include:
- Discrete trial training
- Early intensive behavioral intervention
- Pivotal response training
- Verbal behavior intervention
- Occupational therapy: Helps children with fine and gross motor skills.
- Sensory integration therapy: Helps those with ASD who are sensitive to bright lights, certain sounds, or smells to cope with sensory information.
- Floortime: Also known as developmental, individual differences, relationship-based approach. A therapy technique where the parent, caregiver, or therapist follows the child’s lead in creating meaningful interactions, which promotes their development.
Social skills and communication strategies provide other treatment methods.
Drugs to treat some symptoms of ASD can also be administered by physicians, including:
For people with ASD who have serious behavioral issues, physicians can also prescribe antipsychotic drugs.
ASD is a neurological disorder that is normal. It does, however, affect individuals in various ways, which may make diagnosis difficult.
Early ASD diagnosis may assist those on the spectrum of autism to find help and learn to live independently. A diagnosis can also help people understand how such habits can be responded to.
Although online testing is an enticing choice for individuals who want to find out whether they or their child have ASD, it is no replacement for a trained medical professional’s official diagnosis.
A combination of assessment methods are used in diagnosis. ASD can only be correctly diagnosed by a physician, and even then, the diagnosis process can be complicated.